# Ideal Transformer: What They Are and How They Work

An ideal transformer is a theoretical device that has no losses, such as copper losses, core losses, or leakage flux. It is a two-winding device that is used to transfer energy from one circuit to another. The two windings are called the primary winding and the secondary winding. The primary winding is connected to the source voltage, and the secondary winding is connected to the load.

How does an Ideal Transformer Work?

When an AC voltage is applied to the primary winding of an ideal transformer, it creates an alternating magnetic flux in the core. This alternating magnetic flux links with the secondary winding of the transformer and induces an AC voltage in it. The magnitude of the induced voltage in the secondary winding is proportional to the turns ratio of the primary and secondary windings. The direction of the induced voltage in the secondary winding is opposite to that of the applied voltage in the primary winding.

Phasor Diagram of an Ideal Transformer

The phasor diagram of an ideal transformer is shown below. The primary voltage (V1) and primary current (I1) are represented by the phasors V1 and I1, respectively. The secondary voltage (V2) and secondary current (I2) are represented by the phasors V2 and I2, respectively.

The following relationships can be derived from the phasor diagram:

• V2/V1 = N2/N1 (Voltage transformation ratio)
• I1/I2 = N2/N1 (Current transformation ratio)
• V1I1 = V2I2 (Power transfer)

where N1 and N2 are the number of turns in the primary and secondary windings, respectively.

Applications of Ideal Transformers

Ideal transformers are used in a wide variety of applications, including:

• Power transmission and distribution: Ideal transformers are used to step up the voltage of electricity before it is transmitted over long distances. This is because it is more efficient to transmit electricity at high voltages.
• Power electronics: Ideal transformers are used in a variety of power electronic circuits, such as rectifiers, inverters, and choppers.
• Telecommunications: Ideal transformers are used in a variety of telecommunications circuits, such as telephone and data lines.